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Saturday, May 15, 2010

Classification of Manufacturing (Production) System

Classification of Manufacturing System:



A. Continuous Production- In this system the item are produced for the stocks and not for specific orders. In this system the inputs are standardized and a standard set of process and sequence of process can be adopted.

Features of Continuous Production
  • Continuity in demand
  • Standardize production
  • Appropriate plant and equipment
  • Specific material
  • Balanced process

MASS PRODUCTION
Manufacture of discrete parts or assemblies using a continuous process are called mass production. This production system is justified by very large volume of production. The machines are arranged in a line or product layout. Product and process standardization exists and all outputs follow the same path.

Characteristics of Mass Production
1. Standardization of product and process.
3. Larger volume of products.
4. Shorter production cycle time.
5. Low process inventory.
6. Production lines are perfectly balanced.
7. Flow of materials, components and parts is continuous
8. Easy production planning and control

Advantages of Mass Production
1. Higher rate of production 
2. Reduced production cycle time.
2. line balancing lead to higher capacity utilization
3. Requirement of less skill operator
4. Lower process inventory.
5. Low manufacturing cost per unit

Limitations of Mass Production

1. Breakdown of one machine will stop an entire production line.
2. Line layout needs major change with the changes in the product design.
3. High investment in production facilities.
4. The cycle time is determined by the slowest operation.


PROCESS PRODUCTION
A production process, that runs for very long periods without the start-and-stop behavior associated with intermittent production such as those used by chemical plants or refineries. High capital investments are required for highly automated facilities that use special-purpose equipment designed for high volumes of production and little or no variation in the type of outputs.

Characteristics of Process Production
1. Extended form of mass production system
2. More automatic machines
3. One basic raw material is transferred into several products at several stages.
4. Less highly skilled workers required
5. More human problems foreseen
6. Highly standardized system


Intermittent Production System - Production is performed on a start-and-stop basis, such as for the manufacture of made-to-order products. The goods are manufacture especially to full fill order by customer rather than for keeping stock.

Characteristics of Intermittent Production System
  • Production in smaller quantities
  • Machine and equipment are aligned as requirement of process
  • High skill labor required
  • Larger in-process inventory
  • Flexible

JOB SHOP PRODUCTION
Job shop production are characterized by manufacturing of one or few quantity of products designed and produced as per the specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. The distinguishing feature of this is low volume and high variety of products. A job shop comprises of general purpose machines arranged into different departments. Each job demands unique technological requirements, demands processing on machines in a certain sequence.

Characteristics
1. High variety of products and low volume.
2. Highly skilled operators required.
3. Large inventory of materials, tools, parts.
4. High capital investment
5. High per unit cost of production
5. Detailed planning is  for required of each product, capacities for each work center and order priorities.

Advantages
1. Because of general purpose machines and facilities variety of products can be produced.
2. Operators will become more skilled and competent, as each job gives them learning opportunities.
3. Full potential of operators can be utilized.
4. Opportunity exists for creative methods and innovative ideas.


Limitations
1. Higher cost because of regular changes
2. Higher inventory cost due to higher level of inventory at all levels
3. Production planning is difficult
4. Larger space requirements.

BATCH PRODUCTION
It is a form of manufacturing in which the job passes through the functional departments in lots or batches and each batch may have a different routing. It is characterized by the manufacture of limited number of products produced at regular intervals and stocked awaiting sales.

Characteristics
•Highly specialized Human resource is required
•Highly specialized multitasking machines
•Machines are shared.
•Production in batches
•Production lots are based on customer demand or order.
•No single sequence of operation
•Finished goods are heterogeneous

Advantages
1. Plant and machinery are better utilized
2. Functional specialization.
3. Lower cost per unit of production as compare to job production
4. Lower investment required
5. Flexibility in process

Limitations
1. Material handling is complex due to irregular an larger flow of material
2. Production planning and control is difficult 

Here is the Comparative study of different production systems

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