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Friday, May 21, 2010

Work System Design - Job design and Work measurement

Work System Design - Job design and Work measurement

Work System Design is an umbrella term used to collectively address the issues of job design and work measurement.

1. Job design means assigning various components i.e. tasks to a job to be performed by a worker in daily routine. Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job that what, who, how, where the job will be done.

Job Design must be:
• Performed by experienced personnel with good knowledge and proper training
• Compatible to goals of the organization
• written form
• Consensus of management and employees

a. Method analysis: Methods analysis is a technique in job design in which the job is usually broken down into various steps or procedures. The workplace arrangement, tools and equipment used, materials used, and the worker’s skill set required for the performance of the job are all studied in detail in order to devise better methods of performing a job.
I. Flow Process: Flow process chart shows the flow of materials, labor, and products (semi-finished and finished) from one place to the other in the facility. It helps in identifying the various sources of delay in the process, which may be eliminated in order to achieve better efficiency.
II. Employee-machine activity: Employee-machine activity charts help in methods analysis of jobs for improving the efficiency of the employees and the machines. In employee-machine activity chart, we show the various time instants and the activities of the employee and the machine simultaneously.


b. Behavioral aspect of Job Design

I. Job enlargement: Job enlargement is the horizontal loading of the job of a worker. This means certain tasks of the same skill and mental level as being handled by the worker earlier are added to the job.
II. Job Rotation: Job rotation, highly repetitive tasks like in assembly lines are swapped (interchanged) amongst workers after a suitable duration of time.
III. Job enrichment: Job enrichment means giving some additional responsibilities to the worker, which are slightly more dignified than the routine tasks being handled by him. This is also called vertical loading of the job.

c. Principles of motion economy: Principles of motion economy aim at minimizing the human fatigue of workers due to repetitive motion of the different parts of the body like hands, feet, eyes, etc. and, thus, maximizing the efficiency of the worker during the performance of a job.


2. Work Measurement: Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance.  
a. Stopwatch time: Stopwatch time study is a method of work measurement used for measuring the standard time duration of repetitive tasks. Standard time: Standard time duration means the time taken by an average worker to perform a task at a sustainable rate under the given facility arrangements.
b. Work Sampling: Work sampling is a method used to determine the fraction of idle time of machines or workers during the day or to determine the time spent by workers on different types of tasks. This method is suitable for jobs which are non-repetitive in nature.

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