14 Principles of Management (Henri Fayol)
Fayol listed Fourteen Principles based on experience. He noting that Principles of management are flexible, not absolute and must be usable regard less of changing and special conditions. Some kinds of Principles appeared to be indispensable in every undertaking.
1. Division of Work : Fayol applies the principle to all kind of work, management as well as technical.
2. Authority and responsibility : Henri Fayol finds authority and responsibility to be related with the latter arising from the former. He sees authority as a combination of official factors, manager’s position and personal factors, “Compounded of intelligence, experience, moral worth, past services etc.
3. Discipline : Fayol declares that discipline requires good superiors at all levels.
4. Unity of Command: This means that employees should receive order from one superior only.
5. Unity Of Direction: According to this principal, each group of activities with same objective must have one head and one plan.
6. Subordination of individuals to general interest: When the two are found to differ, management must reconcile them.
7. Remuneration: Remuneration and method of payment should b fair and have maximum possible
satisfaction to employees and employer.
8. Centralization: Without using the term centralization of authority ‘’Fayol refers authority dispersed or concentrated.
9. Scalar Chain: Fayol thinks of this as “Chain of Superior” from beigest to low ranks should be short circuited.
10. Order: Fayol classify this into “material” and “social” order. This is essential principle in arrangement of things and people in an organization.
11. Equity: Loyalty and devotion should be elected from personnel on biases of kindliness and justice, when dealing with subordinate.
12. Stability of tenure: In bad management, Fayol points out id dangers and costs.
13. Initiative: Initiative is execution of a plan.
14. Esprit decrops: This is the principle that in the union there is strength. This principle emphasis on work, Unity of communication. In order to accomplishment of objective.