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Monday, June 21, 2010

Principles of Scientific Management by F. W.Taylor

Taylor's Scientific Management (USA 1856-1915):

Started as an apprentice machinist in Philadelphia, USA. He rose to be the chief engineer at the Midvale Engineering Works and later on served with the Bethlehem Works where he experimented with his ideas and made the contribution to the management theory for which he is so well known. Frederick Winslow Taylor well-known as the founder of scientific management was the first to recognize and emphasis the need for adopting a scientific approach to the task of managing an enterprise. He tried to diagnose the causes of low efficiency in industry and came to the conclusion that much of waste and inefficiency is due to the lack of order and system in the methods of management. He found that the management was usually ignorant of the amount of work that could be done by a worker in a day as also the best method of doing the job. As a result, it remained largely at the mercy of the workers who deliberately shirked work. He therefore, suggested that those responsible for management should adopt a scientific approach in their work, and make use of "scientific method" for achieving higher efficiency. The scientific method consists essentially of

(a) Observation

(b) Measurement

(c) Experimentation and

(d) Inference.


He advocated a thorough planning of the job by the management and emphasized the necessity of perfect understanding and co-operation between the management and the workers both for the enlargement of profits and the use of scientific investigation and knowledge in industrial work. He summed up his approach in these words:
Science, not rule of thumb
Harmony, not discord
Co-operation, not individualism
Maximum output, in place of restricted output
The development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity.


Features of Scientific Management:

1. It was closely associated with the industrial revolution and the rise of large-scale enterprise.

2. Classical organization and management theory is based on contributions from a number of sources. They are scientific management, Administrative management theory, bureaucratic model, and micro-economics and public administration.

3. Management thought focused on job content division of labour, standardization, simplification and specialization and scientific approach towards organization.

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